Beyond Circe, there are only a few other quasi-dominatrix figures in pre-modern literature: Quartilla from the Satyricon, or (maybe) Chaucer’s Wife of Bath. By the late 1700s, pro-dommes (and pro-subs) were a fairly common feature of the sexual landscape, but we don’t really know what they looked like. There are no pictures of Theresa Berkeley, for example, probably the most famous pro-domme in history.
The 1871 image above is of a “pretty horse breaker,” an English euphemism for the high-class prostitutes that rode into Hyde Park to find clients (obeying the letter of a street-walking ordinance that banned unaccompanied women from entering the park on foot.)
She’s probably not a pro-domme, but it’s easy to imagine that the look was much the same. And girls riding horses and wielding buggy whips are certainly in the neighborhood of the dominatrix fetish.